Advocacy Toolkit - Research and Data

For parents, educators and others who care about deaf and hard of hearing children.

More and more evidence-based information is becoming available on how to support language, communication, and educational progress for deaf and hard of hearing students.


Advantages of Early Visual Language   This VL2 research brief, written by Sharon Baker, Ed.D., focuses on the importance of early visual language. (January 2011)

Language Acquisition for Deaf Children:  Reducing the Harms of Zero Tolerance to the Use of Alternative Approaches   Humphries et al, Harm Reduction Journal 2012, 9:16, doi:10.1186/1477-7517-9-16. 

Research Brief 1: The Importance of Fingerspelling for Reading   This VL2 research brief, written by Sharon Baker, Ed.D., focuses on the importance of fingerspelling for reading. This also comes with three appendices for instructional guidance. (July 2010, Rev.) 

Deaf Individuals' Bilingual Abilities: American Sign Language Proficiency, Reading Skills, and Family Characteristics  Freel, B. L., Clark, M. D., Anderson, M. L., Gilbert, G. L., Musyoka, M. M., & Hauser, P. C. (2011).  American Annals of the Deaf, 2(1) 18-23. 

Phonology is not necessary to become a skilled deaf reader.   Miller, P., & Clark, M. D. (2011). Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities.   

Sign perception and recognition in non-native signers of ASL.  Morford, J.P. & Carlson, M.L.(2011). Morford, J.P. & Carlson, M.L.(2011).  Language Learning and Development,7(2), 149-168  

Research Brief 4: Reading and Deaf Children  This research brief, written by VL2's Early Education Longitudinal Study (EELS) co-PI and Gallaudet University Professor Donna Morere, provides an overview of the research related to deaf children and reading.

Research Brief 6:  The Implications of Bilingual Bimodal Approaches for Children with Cochlear Implants  This research brief provides an overview of the key findings related to visual language and its advantages for young deaf learners with cochlear implants.  It also discusses the implications of bimodal bilingual approaches for young deaf learners.

Deaf Education:  A New Philosophy  Rochester Institute of Technology

Cochlear implants and the right to language: Ethical considerations, ideal situation, and practical measures toward reaching the ideal  Humphries, T., P. Kushalnagar, G. Mathur, D. Napoli, C. Padden, C. Rathmann, and S. Smith (2012). In C. Umat and D. L. Saim (eds.), Cochlear Implantation. InTech




A big THANK YOU to all the schools  that contributed pictures for the CEASD website!